This paper is about fermentation production of ethanol using sweet sorghum stalks as raw material. Content: The soluble part and insoluble part of sweet sorghum stalks are treated separately then ferment by the self-immobilized yeast after adding the nutrient salts. Results: after first squeezing of the stem, the sap is obtained. The slag is treated with acid, alkali and ultrasonic, then hydrolyzed by the Trichoderma viride L21 fermentation broth or directly by cellulase, and the total yield of reducing sugar is 73.22%. The power of ultrasonic is 60w and opens for 1s intervals 6s in total 20min to make obvious damage to fiber structure. The chemical compositions of sap are analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatographic. The response surface analysis is used to optimize the adding amount of the CO(NH2)2, MgSO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2, FeCl3 and so on. At last self-immobilized Saccharmyces cerevisiae FFCC2167 which has agglutination characteristic is used for fermentation. Ethanol production is 100.44 g • L-1, and the yield efficiency is 93.24％.