Abstract. In the western China, since special geographical condition, vulnerable ecological environment and environment pollution from oil development, the regional economic society suffers from dire threats. For a long time, the local economic development walks along the same path that “treatment after pollution, recovery after damage”. In order to economic development, many governments pay a little attention at environment. So, the ecological environment must be taken attention to protect and the west oil companies must undertake the society obligation and protect the environment during the domestic oil resources strategic shift from east to west. In this article, the effects on ecological environment from oil development of northwest oilfields were analyzed, and the reasonable measures were put forward to protect the vulnerable environment.