An analytical pyrolyzer coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to study the influence of HZSM-5 on the pyrolysis products of cellulose. The results revealed that pyrolysis products of cellulose consisted of light molecular weight products with linear chain, anhydrosugars and furan compounds. Light molecular products were mainly acetaldehyde and 2-propanone, 1-hydroxy; anhydrosugars were mainly levoglucosan (LG), levoglucosenone (LGO) and 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose (DGP); Furans were mainly furfural (FF) and 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). The addition of HZSM-5 changed the contents of main products from fast pyrolysis of cellulose, especially for aromatic hydrocarbons, which belonged to light molecular products and increased rapidly. In addition, plenty of carbon dioxide appeared. With the addition of HZSM-5, the dehydration of LG was enhanced to produce LGO and then LGO was further decomposed into small molecular products with HZSM-5: cellulose ratio increasing. And the formation of FF and HMF were both inhibited with the addition of HZSM-5, but the formation of furan was improved. It was inferred that the addition of HZSM-5 could effectively promote the further dehydration of initial products from cellulose fast pyrolysis by the breakage of side chain.