The object of this study is to provide the scientific basis of biogas industry with agricultural residue straws as energy biomass. The biogas productivity potential experiment and reactor amplification experiment are carried out to study biogas yield from different agricultural straws including wheat straw, corn straw, peanut straw, soybean straw as well as rice straw, and the relationship between biogas yield and the anaerobic reactor volume with wheat straw as the substrate and with biogas slurry as a source of microorganisms under room temperature conditions (35�?. Micro-aerobic pretreatment fermentation technology is used to treat the agricultural straws. The batch anaerobic digestion technology and drainage collection process are used. The results show that the order of biogas yield from high to low is wheat, rice, corn, peanut and soybean straw. The utilization of peanut straw is the largest, followed by rice, corn, soybean and wheat straw. With wheat straw as the substrate amplification test reactor, gas production of 2.5 L and 1 L reactor is similar, and gas production rate and daily gas production of 2.5 L reactor is about 3 times than that of 15 L reactor.