Variable structure control (VSC) has the ability of overcoming chattering and external disturbance. In this paper the temperature control based of Variable Structure Control is presented for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) which is a promising device for stationary power and heat supply. The parameters of VSC are obtained by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of this approach. The simulation and the results showed that the VSC and the PSO receding optimization applied to the MCFC temperature control yielded good performance.