This paper developments the research of improving the plasticity of low rank bituminous coal. The purpose is to improve the caking property of low rank bituminous coal and expand coking coal resources. The hydrothermal treatment, co-pyrolysis adding waste plastic and hydrogenation processing are chosen to process low rank bituminous coal. Several means including FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatographic(GC) and caking index are used to analyze the treated coal and generated gas products. The results show that the carboxyl groups of coal are removed after hydrothermal treatment, and the intensity of hydroxyl absorption increases. The oxygen-containing functional groups except hydroxyl groups of coal are removed after hydrogenation. The hydrogenation has obvious effects on the changes of coal structure. The reactivity and caking property of hydrotreated coal increases significantly, the indexes of coke quality of hydrotreated coal is measured to reach 16. The co-pyrolysis hydrogenation of plastic and coal results show that coal can prevent the thermal decomposition products of plastics from escaping. The caking index of hydrotreated coal with plastic is much same as that of hydrotreated coal. The addition of plastic in hydrogenation processing can not directly improve the coal plasticity.