To reduce power consumption and attain goals of energy saving and carbon reduction, this study explored the possibility of replacing regular roadway lamps with LED roadway lamps, with focus on the comparison and analysis of lighting color differences. Computer vision system was used for color quantification to simulate human vision. We allowed for LED roadway lamps and various illuminants to irradiate on a 24-color chart to collect the displayed colors and color differences. The CIEDE2000 color difference equation was used to determine the difference between LED roadway lamp illuminants and D65 standard sources, and indicated different characteristics for different illuminants at different colors. The research results showed that lighting color difference values for LED roadway lamps was next to that of T8 luminous tubes and metal halide lamps (similar to D65 standard source). The LED roadway lamp can replace regular roadway lamps to become a predominant type in the future.