Methanol and diesel are almost not soluble, which greatly limits the further study and popularization of the methanol-diesel fuel. To study the emission and combustion characteristics, the 4100 turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine was fueled with 0# diesel and M10 with different additives in the experiment. The result shows that, the maximum cylinder pressure and the peak of the heat release rate in the initial stage of combustion for M10 with iso-octanol and isooctyl nitrate as additive are higher than that of diesel, while the soot emission is lower and NOx emission is slightly higher than diesel’. The maximum cylinder pressure and the heat-release peak in the initial stage of combustion for M10 with dimethyl ether as additive are both lower than diesel’, and the NOx and soot emissions are obviously decreased. The power of the two blend fuels is lower than that of diesel but the magnitude is small, meanwhile the HC emission is slightly increased, while the CO emission is little declined.