Abandoning cropland to enable recovery of the natural vegetation has been implemented during the past decade to restore the soil quality in the Loess Plateau, China. However, natural succession on cropland in the different slope aspect is different. The present study aimed at investigating the change in soil chemical and microbial properties abandoned farmland across time, and also to compare the difference of soil chemical and microbial properties in north slope and south slope on the Loess Plateau. The results showed that the slope aspect greatly affected the soil chemical and microbial properties after the cropland was abandoned, this could be attributed to the different precipitation and temperature in the two slopes. Compared with the north slope in which the organic C, total N and available N increased with the increase of abandonment years, that of south slope fluctuated significantly. Microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N in both slopes did not differ significantly in the first 10 years abandoned cropland, then decreased drastically in 15-year sites and thereafter tended to increase. Basal respiration in both slope fluctuated greatly in the sites with different abandonment years. Enzymes activities differed significantly in two slopes.