From the holistic perspective, a new dynamic model is proposed in this research to investigate the interaction between vegetation growth and aeolian dust deposition. Three cases of equilibrium distribution can be obtained and the stability of interior equilibriums is determined. When there is a stable interior equilibrium, a critical curve exists and separates the coexistent area where vegetation can survive in the environment of aeolian dust deposition, from the other area where vegetation is to be excluded. Simulation analysis further reveals the variation of the critical curve with the parameters and the anthropic influences. The critical curve and the coexistent equilibrium described by the model may be used as a theoretical basis to evaluate the feasibility of vegetation restoration in the environment of aeolian dust deposition.