Based on water quality testing data of shallow groundwater samples from 16 different locations in the area around Poyang Lake, the analysis methods of grey relational analysis combine with correlation analysis are used to analyze the relevancy of several ions with total hardness, conductivity and mineralization in shallow groundwater. Moreover, the study also includes a discussion of the causes. Results show that, compared with Mg2+, Ca2+ shows a better correlation with total hardness, the correlation coefficient is 0.711; the correlation of SO42- and HCO3- with conductivity are as high as 0.973 and 0.925, respectively; SO42- shows the best correlation with mineralization among seven-ions with a correlation coefficient of 0.970. Total hardness is mainly influenced by Ca2+ in shallow groundwater; SO42- and HCO3- are main factors which influence conductivity; SO42- has significant influence on mineralization. According to the cause analysis, the dissolve of carbonates, the weathering and hydrolysis of calcium-containing minerals in magmatic rocks and metamorphic rocks are the main sources of Ca2+ and HCO 3- ; SO42- content is closely related to accumulation of waste rock, burning of coal and strong rainfall in south China.