With the globalization of the economy, energy constraints for economic development have become increasingly apparent. Low-carbon economy has become a necessity. China is a big country of energy consumption, the development of low carbon economy has a long way to go. Low carbon economy will be the opportunity of sustainable development,but also the core of enterprises and the national competitiveness in future. China needs to develop appropriate measures,such as learning the experience of a low carbon economy from the United Kingdom and other developed countries, introducing foreign advanced technology, strengthening independent R&D, improving efficiency of energy conversion,further implementing energy conservation based on international standards to achieve a low carbon economy.In this paper, we established a cointegration and error correction model of 1978-2009 China's economic growth and a regression model between energy consumption and industrial structure.Based on the two models,we analyzed the relationship between Chinese economy and the energy consumption.