The steel plate reinforced concrete shear wall (abbreviated as SPRCW) is an innovative type of lateral force resisting structural member potentially used in steel-concrete composite structures, especially in high-rise buildings. This paper presents an experimental study on seismic behavior of such kind of shear walls. The test specimens include five SPRCW models and one ordinary specimen RCW-1 built at the aspect ratio is 2. The combination of the following wall parameters is varied: thickness of the steel plate, thickness of the SPRCW, axial compression ratio, and detailing such as lateral ties cross the steel plate. The experimental program is developed to evaluate the damage patterns, hysteretic response, strength, stiffness and ductility behavior of the walls under axial compressive loads and cyclic horizontal forces. In addition, the experimental results are analyzed in comparison with those of anthoer ordinary RC shear walls. The investigation shows that this type of shear wall has the potential to offer strength adequate for resisting forces from earthquake and stiffness appropriate for limiting drift for tall buildings with less size than ordinary RC walls. It is also observed that steel plate encased in the wall plays a major role in bearing loads, while concrete provides lateral restraint for steel plate, and hence increasing global stability and deformation capacity of the wall.