Organic lightweight aggregate concrete (OAC) is produced by replacing normal aggregate with organic aggregate in concrete or mortar either partially or fully, depending on the requirements of the strength and density. The study aims to investigate the compressive strength of OAC containing virgin EPS beads, recycled EPS granules and rubber granules with diameter 3-5 mm, and the influence of cement matrix on compressive strength of OAC. The results show that compressive strength of OAC decreases as organic aggregate content increases; furthermore, the decreasing rate of the strength is slowing down. The dimensionless compress strength-density relationship of EPS lightweight aggregate concrete (PAC) containing virgin EPS, recycled EPS and different cement matrix has uniform law. It can be modeled as σ*pl /σs=0.916(ρ*/ρs)3.04. The experimental compressive strength of ultra-lightweight EPS concrete with density lower than 900 kg/m3 is much higher than the value calculated by Gibson formula. The larger the relative density is, the greater the difference between the two is. The dimensionless compressive strength-density relationship of rubcrete can be modeled as σ*pl /σs=0.956(ρ*/ρs)8.66. The compressive strength of rubcrete, compared with PAC, is more sensitive to the relative density.