In recent years, due to its excellent mechanical properties, especially its insensitivity of strength to thickness, high-rise structural steel with high performance and heavy thickness made in china was applied more and more widely in large-span and high-rise steel building structures. However, there are no reasonable design indexes based on design reliability analysis for the new material in relevant national standards. The high-rise structural steel was often used as H-section column with heavy thickness at present, and its residual stress distribution has significant influence on load-carrying capacity, which is one of the critical factors in reliability analysis of elementary members using high-rise structural steel. In this paper, with the block sectioning method, a detailed experimental investigation on the longitudinal residual stress distribution for H-section (H800×800×80×80mm), made from Q345GJ high-rise structural steel with thickness of 80mm is introduced. The contour of residual stress distribution in the whole section based on test was presented, and the regularity of the residual stress distribution of such a section was discussed. Meanwhile, the contour of yielding strength distribution in the whole H-shaped section with heavy thickness was obtained. It will provide some basic data for reliability analysis and further investigation of the structural members using high-rise structural steel.