The shear resistance at the interface between FRP sheet and concrete is a key problem for the application of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) plates, which has emerged as a popular method for the strengthening of reinforced concrete structures. The objective of this study is to discuss the interfacial shear ultimate bearing capacity of a high-strength concrete structure strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites under static loads. Considering the different strength of concretes, double-shear tests were conducted. Based on the test results, considering of the adhesive layer, explicit finite element is used for simulating the shear failure of CFRP-strengthened concrete, obtain the whole process of structure deformation development, describe the conformation and development of crack and the failure mode. The FE result coincides with the experimental result.