The issues of energy shortage, global warming and climate change have led to an increased interest in new energy sector, such as microalgae-based biofuels. There are many advantages to produce microalgae as a biofuel feedstock, for instance, high photosynthesis efficiency and uncompetition with traditional agriculture on farmlands. Benefiting from current culturing technologies, such as open ponds and photobioreactors, commercial microalgae farming (e.g., Earthrise) is booming. In this regard, identifying the main environmental benefits associated with microalgae production is pretty important to support this promising industry. Although there are many researches on microalgae production, published information available on the sustainably environmental benefits is fragmented. The aims of this paper are to investigate and analyze environmental benefits related with microalgae biomass production for biofuel usage from sustainability perspective, systematically and explicitly, including water resource, land, nutrient, greenhouse gases and genetic modification dimensions.