The firing calibration of Artillery fire control system with closed-loop calibration manner can improve the firing accuracy significantly. The miss distance prediction is the theory core of closed-loop calibration. Whether the prediction algorithm of closed-loop calibration corrects or not is directly related to the calibration’s success or failure. Mainly for the external error sources not caused by fire control computer system, this paper established a closed-loop calibration model based on Kalman filtering algorithm, researched the specific implementation process of algorithm model, and applied the MATLAB software simulating the model. Simulation results show that the closed-loop calibration model based on Kalman filtering algorithm can significantly inhibit firing error and is a feasible algorithm and provides a good theoretical basis for forecasting error.