Performance objectives and contents of resistance verification for high speed railway bridge are embodied and quantified based on the theory of performance-based seismic design. The resistance verification is proposed, which can control the damage under design earthquake and ensure safety of the pier under low-level earthquake. The simplified capacity spectra method for calculating displacement ductility factor is proposed by using strength reduction factor. The method for evaluating damage of RC bridge pier in high-level earthquake is presented by using maximum displacement and hysteretic energy. The proposed approach and procedures for performance-based seismic design are easily to implement. The performance-based seismic design procedure is demonstrated by using an example.