Cylinder compression pressure reflects the air tightness of engine. A method for measuring the compression pressure of cylinder indirectly through measuring the vibration signal of cylinder head was studied and then to detect the air tightness. The air pressure signal in cylinder and vibration signals of cylinder head were measured at the same time when the diesel engine was driven by the motor. According to port timing, the vibration signal excited by cylinder pressure was separated using time domain analysis. A RBF neural network model was set up to build the relation between compression pressure and cylinder head vibration. So the air tightness of cylinder can be detected after calculating the compression pressure by use of neural network.