Porous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were successfully fabricated utilizing particle-leaching method. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffolds and the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into osteoblastic phenotype were determined using MTT assay, ALP activity and ESEM. The results revealed that the CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity of the scaffolds were investigated. Both pure scaffolds and MSCs/scaffold constructs were implanted in rabbit mandibles and studied histologically. The results showed that CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffolds dramatically enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation initially.