Because of its high machining efficiency and good machining quality, ultrasonic aided high-speed lapping with solid abrasive is regarded as a good method of cylindrical machining for engineering ceramics. Compared with conventional lapping, ultrasonic aided high speed lapping has unique surface topography distribution characteristics for the difference of the surface formation mechanism and material removal mechanism. In the paper, the surface topography characteristics of engineering ceramics in different lapping mode were researched. Research results show that the lapped surfaces with and without ultrasonic assistance present different surface topography characteristics. Under the same lapping mode, the lapped surface topography is distinctly different for different ceramics. With the assistance of ultrasonic vibration, more ductile material removal can be obtained and the surface quality can be improved correspondingly.