The Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans periplasmic space is known to have proteins involved in the respiratory chains. There are no reports about the expression of the periplasmic proteins in A. ferrooxidans cells attached to chalcopyrite. In this preliminary work, it was compared the periplasmic protein profiles of A. ferrooxidans planktonic and attached cells after exposure to chalcopyrite for 2 hours. The bacterial response to chalcopyrite was investigated by a proteomic approach (two- dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry). Four proteins differentially expressed between planktonic and attached cells after exposure to chalcopyrite were identified. Two of these proteins, repressed in chalcopyrite- attached cells, were both identified as superoxide dismutase, whereas the single strand binding protein (SSB) and the PspA/IM30 protein were induced. These results showed that A. ferrooxidans chalcopyrite- attached and planktonic cells show differential expression of the periplasmic proteins and that a proteomic approach can provide a valuable tool to detect proteins related to the A. ferrooxidans response to attachment to the mineral substrates.