The aim of the study was to quantify and to visualize colonization of metal sulfides by pure and mixed cultures. Strains of the genera Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum were tested. Sessile and planktonic cells were visualized by fluorescence microscopy using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and FISH. Additionally, atomic force microscopy was used for the investigations on cell morphology, spatial arrangement of cells on metal sulfides and mineral surface topography. It was shown that the morphology of sessile cells was totally different as compared with planktonic ones. Interactions of different species resulted in increased production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or caused negligible-attaching bacteria to be incorporated into a biofilm by the good attaching ones. Consequently, biofilm formation was furthered.