More than 100 cultures of acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms from mine waste dumps in 10 different countries all over the world have been maintained in liquid media in the BGR-strain collection for many years. Our 16S rDNA analysis showed that most of the cultivated Fe(II)-oxidizers belong to four genera: Acidithiobacillus, Acidimicrobium, “Ferrimicrobium” and Leptospirillum. All analyzed Acidithiobacillus strains were identified as At. ferrooxidans. The Leptospirillum strains were affiliated with L. ferriphilum or L. ferrooxidans. The Gram-positive strains related to Acidimicrobium or ”Ferrimicrobium” were phylogenetically more diverse than the strains of the genera Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum and fell into three separate clusters. While several strains could be identified as syngeneic (16S rDNA) with “Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum”, two other 16S rDNA clusters were distantly related and might represent new species or even new genera. In addition, one new Sulfobacillus strain and one new Alicyclobacillus strain could be identified. Furthermore several strains related to Acidiphilium acidophilum have been detected and form one 16S rDNA cluster.