Stable fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCNPs) with excellent water-solubility were prepared firstly by one-step ultrasonic treatment from the blending of glucose and sodium hydroxide. Then, the fluorescence calcium alginate fibers were successfully prepared through wet spinning, using the mixture of FCNPs and sodium alginate solution as the spinning dope. The fluorescent property of FCNPs and fibers were investigated using fluorescence spectrophotometer. Single fiber strength tester was used to measure the strength of the fluorescence fibers. The results showed that both FCNPs and fibers emitted bright blue color under 350nm wavelength UV irradiation. The strength of the fibers was improved when the content of FCNPs in the fibers achieved certain value.