Electronic structure and optical properties of non-metals (N, S, F, P, Cl) -doped cubic NaTaO3 were investigated systematically by density functional theory (DFT). The results showed that the substitution of (N, S, P, Cl) for O in NaTaO3 was effective in narrowing the band-gap relative to the F-doped NaTaO3. The larger red shift of the absorption edge and the higher visible light absorption at about 520 nm were found for the (N and P)-doped NaTaO3. The excitation from the impurity states to the conduction band may account for the red shift of the absorption edge in an electron-deficiency non-metal doped NaTaO3. The obvious absorption in the visible light region for (N and P)-doped NaTaO3 provides an important guidance for the design and preparation of the visible light photoactive materials.