This paper presents research work relating to design method and mechanical properties of functionally-graded composite (FGC) beams, in which a kind of strain hardening material UHTCC is used as a replacement for the concrete material that surrounds the longitudinal reinforcements. According to mechanical models of materials and a series of assumptions, a simplified design method of such FGC beams is proposed. On the basis of superposition, the determination and the influencing factors of the thickness of UHTCC layer in FGC beams is discussed. Compared with theoretical and experimental results, simplified method shows conservation and guarantees the safety of structures. During the whole flexural loading process, it is found that the opening of cracks in flexural members can be greatly restricted by the introduction of UHTCC. The possibility of steel corrosion therefore can be evidently reduced.