The hot deformation behavior of Nb-V-Ti microalloyed steel in the temperature range of 850°C～1100°C and the strain rate range of 0.001s-1～30s-1 was investigated by establishing the processing maps. The strain rate sensitivity (m), power dissipation efficiency (η) and instability parameter were calculated based on the experimental compression data and are plotted in the temperature–strain rate plane to obtain power dissipation and instability maps. The processing maps exhibit that the deformation at 1000°C and 2s-1 is one peak efficiency of power dissipation of 21%, the deformation at 1050°C and 0.01~0.001 s-1 is another peak efficiency of power dissipation of 45%. The optical microstructure observations show that they represent two dynamic recrystallization domains. Based on the above processing maps, the hot working parameters were optimized.