The oily sludge-based adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization were prepared by pyrolysis. Based on benzene adsorptivity, the conditions of pyrolysis process were optimized. The optimum prepared conditions of adsorbent material were in nitrogen atmosphere and 550°C, 4h, 10°C/min for the pyrolysis temperature, pyrolysis time and heating rate, respectively. In this case, the maximum benzene adsorbability was 60.12mg/g. Moreover, the main influencing factor was pyrolysis temperature, secondly was pyrolysis time and finally was heating rate. The sludge-based adsorbents were appropriate for flue gas desulfurization. The sulfur capacity of adsorbents via a flue gas desulfurization test after subsequent processing was about 3% and breakthrough time could keep to 109 min.