When high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, super fast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved properties. In this paper, HCPEB modification of 45# carbon steel with working parameters of electron energy 25 kV, pulse duration 3.5µs, and energy density 4 J/cm2 was investigated. The microstructures of modified surface were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of type JSM 5310 and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of type H-800. It is found that the modified surface layer can be divided into three zones: the white layer or melted layer of depth 3 to10µm, the heat and stress effecting zone 10 µm below and about 250 µm, then matrix, where a nanostructure and/or amorphous layer formed in the near-surface region. It is proved that the whole treatment process is not complex and cost-effective, and has a substantial potential to be applied in industries.