In this paper, nanometer MgO powder was prepared by using MgCl2•6H2O as the raw material, and environmental benign strong-base anion exchange resin as the induced-precipitation regent. The influence of the concentration of MgCl2 solution, drying method, calcination temperature and time on particle size and physico-chemical features of MgO was studied. The optimal technical conditions were obtained. The XRD and SEM results show that the nanometer MgO prepared under the optimal technical conditions has regular hexagonal lamellar structure, and is composed of nanocrystals with average size between 10 to 25 nm. The existence of dry N2 prevented the sintering of MgO during decomposition processing of Mg(OH)2. Compared with the other nanometer MgO preparation methods, ion exchange resin method has the advantages of low cost, low pollution, high yield and environmental benign; therefore, it appears to be a promising method for the industrial manufacturing of nanometer MgO.