Nano-ZrO2 particles were modified by KH-570 (γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane). The nano-ZrO2 before and after modified were characterized by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The anti-wear and friction reduction properties of nano-ZrO2 used as additive in lubrication were analyzed by friction and wear test machine of MMU-10G. The results show that the polarity of nano-ZrO2 after modified is changed, the surface free energy is reduced, and both the dispersity and stability of the modified nano-ZrO2 in organic media are improved. The modified nano-ZrO2 can increase the anti-wear and friction reduction properties of the base oil. Lubrications containing 0.10wt% and 0.05wt% nano-ZrO2 have the best tribological properties in the four-ball test and the thrust-ring test, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze the protective layer formed on the rubbed surface, and Zr elements were found on the rubbed surface.