Titanium alloys are often material of choice for aerospace, chemical and biomedical industries, because of their unusual corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength and low density. However titanium alloys have very poor wear resistance. Hard coatings can be formed on the surface of titanium alloys to improve their tribological property. In this work ion nitriding without hydrogen technique was used to treat Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the nitrided layer was formed on the substrate surface. The fundamental coating properties, such as the phase, component, hardness and elastic modulus were investigated. At the ion-nitriding condition of flux ratio N2/Ar=1:1, pressure 40 pa and substrate temperature 900°C, the nitrided layer was formed. The layer consists of Ti2N and TiN compound. The content of element nitrogen in the nitrided layer gradiently decreases from the the surface to the substrate direction. For a better understanding of the hardness of the nitrided layer, the nano indentation test and microhardness test are both used. The results show that the average values of hardness and elastic modulus for the surface of the nitrided layer are 17.36GPa and 328.81GPa, about 6 times and 3 times respectively as those of Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The hardness of the nitrided layer decreases from the surface to the substrate direction, which corresponding to the content change of element nitrogen. For the result of nano indentation test, when the indentation depth is more than 400nm, the values of hardness and elastic modulus both decrease with the increase of the indentation depth. It is because of the influence of the soft Ti-6Al-4V substrate.