A type of basalt fibers polymer functional composites embedded with ZnO whiskers was prepared. The as-prepared composites exhibited good microwave absorption properties after the dispersion of ZnO whiskers in resin. The dynamic compressive properties of composites were investigated by the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The macro- and micro-fracture morphology of composites was obtained by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results showed that the as-prepared composites have excellent mechanical properties, and the compressive properties could be significantly affected by the strain rates in the in-plane direction, as well as in the normal direction. As the strain rate increased, the higher strength and elastic modulus are obtained. Under the dynamic compressive load in the normal direction, the main failure mode of composites is pure compression. On the other hand, longitudinal splitting and delamination of composites could be induced when loaded in the in-plane direction. The micro- interfacial crack, fiber fracture and plastic deformation of resin could be observed from the morphology of fractured composites.