In this study, the authors made an experiment to observe the residual stress state in the surface of the engineered parts (for example, shot-peened steel) by X-ray stress measurement. An evaluation method was proposed for the stress gradient from the information on the X-ray Debye ring obtained with an area detector. The method utilized the fact that the X-ray penetration depth is a function of the central angle of the Debye ring α. It varies due to a section of Debye ring. It also depends on the incidence angle of X-rays and the wavelength used. Mean stress over the whole penetration depths of X-rays, which is defined as the Laplace stress, was measured by the cosα method[1, 2] by using this characteristic, and the real space stress[3-5] gradient was evaluated.