Si3N4 particle reinforced MoSi2 composite powder has been successfully synthesized combustion synthesis method. XRD and SEM results showed that the combustion product was mainly composed by MoSi2 and Si3N4. The as-prepared Si3N4/MoSi2 composite powder has been pressureless sintered at 1600°C for 1h. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Relative densities of the monolithic material and composite were 92.2% and 89.6%, respectively. The composite has higher Vicker’s hardness and flexural strength than monolithic MoSi2. Especially the room-temperature fracture toughness of the composite is from 4.21MPa•m1/2 for MoSi2 to 7.25MPa•m1/2 for composite, increased by 72.2%, respectively. The morphology of fractured surface of composite revealed the mechanism of improving mechanical properties of MoSi2 matrix. The results of this work showed that in situ Si3N4/MoSi2 composite powder prepared by combustion synthesis could be successfully pressureless sintered and significant improvement of mechanical properties could be achieved.