The assembly optimization problem of multiple printed circuit board (PCB) tasks is analyzed, and an optimal model is formulated to balance the workload in decoupled PCB assembly line. Combined with polychromatic sets and genetic algorithm (GA), an integrated methodology is developed to solve the PCB assignment and component allocation simultaneously. Based on polychromatic sets theory, a 3D numerical contour matrix is presented to describe the characters of PCB, component and machine and the constraint of machine and process, and a constraint model is formulated. Constraint model guarantees that GA searches in the available solution space and simplify the calculation of fitness value and GA operation. Computational results indicate that the approach presented in this paper is useful and effective.