The formation of WEDM surface is a complicated process. There are many factors which make machined surface topography have the characteristics of complex and irregular, and impact using performance of parts. The work investigated microscopic features of the WEDM surface topography based on power spectral density and fractal theory, and proposed power spectral density evaluation method of the WEDM surface. The fractal dimension of the WEDM surface was calculated by structure function method. The physical meaning of the fractal dimension of the WEDM surface was described. The result shows that topography of the WEDM surface exhibits strong fractal characteristics within a certain scale. The processing parameters and pulse power performance will affect the fractal dimension D. The fractal dimension D has a certain relationship with the surface roughness Ra. It is more reasonable to use the fractal dimension D as well as the surface roughness Ra together to evaluate WEDM surface quality.