In recent two decades, the issues on structural damage detection and health monitoring have been paid considerable attention in mechanical and civil engineering communities. A lot of researchers have developed many methods to try to resolve the problems. To this day, detection of the small damage of structures, however, has still been a difficulty. The correlation theories of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the basic principle of a new structural damage detection method based on the slope of POD are introduced in this paper. Numerical study on beam structures for small damage detection based on the proposed method is implemented. From the study results one can find that the method based on the slope of the difference of proper orthogonal modes (POMs) has the abilities to localize the small damage of beam structures.