The nano-Al2O3p/Cu composite performed in this paper was prepared by internal oxidation. The nano-Al2O3p/Cu composite wire and the Cu-Ag alloy wire were slid against a copper-based powder metallurgy strip under unlubricated conditions. The wear behavior of nano-Al2O3p/Cu composite and Cu-Ag alloy were researched under different currents from 0~50A and sliding distance from 0~72Km. Worn surfaces of the nano-Al2O3p/Cu composite were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the nano-Al2O3p/Cu composite surface is dispersed with Al2O3 particles having a size of 10~20nm; the wear rate of both 0.60Al2O3p/Cu (containing 0.60wt.% Al2O3) composite and Cu-Ag alloy increases with the increasing electrical current and sliding distance, which increases abruptly at the beginning and smoothly subsequently; The wear rate of Cu-Ag alloy is 2-5 times that of 0.60Al2O3p/Cu composite without electrical current; The wear rate of Cu-Ag alloy is 5-10 times that of 0.60Al2O3p/Cu composite with electrical current of 30A-50A; The sensitivity of electrical current on the Cu-Ag alloy is more apparently than that on 0.60Al2O3p/Cu composite. Adhesive, abrasive, and electrical erosion wear are the dominant mechanisms during the electrical sliding processes.