The Cr2O3/Cu composites with different Cr2O3-content performed in this paper were prepared by surface internal oxidation of Cu-Cr solid alloy. The Cr2O3/Cu composite wires were slid against a copper-based powder metallurgy strip under unlubricated conditions. The wear behavior of Cr2O3/Cu composite was researched under different currents from 0-50A and sliding distance from 0-72Km. Worn surfaces of the Cr2O3/Cu composite were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the wear rate of Cr2O3/Cu composite increases with the increase in electrical current and sliding distance. The wear rate increases abruptly at the beginning and smoothly subsequently. And the variety of electrical currents has slight influence on the wear rate. The wear rate of the Cr2O3/Cu composites decreases with the increase in Cr2O3-content. The wear rate of 0.478 Cr2O3/Cu composite is 2-3 times that of 1.25Cr2O3/Cu composite at the same experimental conditions. Abrasive wear and electrical erosion wear are the dominant wear mechanisms during the electrical sliding wear processes.