We were quite successful in demonstrating that two-dimensional inorganic compounds like anionic and cationic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers, those which are completely different from conventional ones such as viral-based, naked, and cationic liposomes, those which are limited in certain cases of applications due to their toxicity, immunogenecity, poor integration, and etc. Since LDHs with positive layer charge have an anion exchange capacity, functional biomolecules with a negative charge can be intercalated into hydroxide layers of LDH by a simple ion-exchange reaction to form a bio-LDH nanohybrid. On the contrary, clays can uptake biofuctional molecules or drugs with positive charge in the interlayer space by cation exchange reaction. The possible roles of inorganic lattice as the gene and drug delivery carrier will be shown by demonstrating the cellular uptake experiments of FITC-LDH, with laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy as well as of radioactive isotope-labeled ATP-LDH hybrid. As the typical examples for gene and drug delivery systems, As-myc-LDH, MTX-LDH, and Itraconazol-clay nanohybrids will be demonstrated in detail.