Uniform multiwalled carbon nanotubes can be synthesized using one-dimensional nanochannels of an aluminum anodic oxide film as a template. This technique allows one to prepare various types of unique carbon nanotubes. It is possible to prepare carbon nanotubes with a double coaxial structure of heteroatom-doped multiwalls. Test tube like carbon prepared by this technique was found to be dispersible in water without any post treatment. Moreover, a large carbon film with millions of carbon nanopillars on its one side was synthesized and it was demonstrated that such carbon film could be used as a corrosion-resistant but electrochemically active film electrode. In addition to these morphological control, complete filling of ferromagnetic metal into the whole cavity of carbon nanotubes was achieved by the template technique.