In bio-systems, nano-composites with complex micro-structures are formed by self-assembly only using low energy at room temperature. If these mechanisms of biological tissue are identified, we can possibly propose a new process to fabricate composites by mimicking tissue formation in vivo. As a bio-material, we paid attention to bio-tissue reinforced with collagen fibrils. Collagen fibrils are of baculiform; Thus the self-assembly process through liquid crystalline transition has been proposed by a French group . In the present study, factors controlling liquid crystalline transition, e.g. concentration and pH, are discussed using collagen solution. When liquid crystalline phase is produced, aligned molecules exhibits optical anisotropy. This anisotropy was observed with a polarized optical microscopy (POM). By observations with POM, development of cholesteric phase in collagen solution was clarified.