Shape memory polymers are a promising class of stimuli-responsive materials that have dual-shape capability. This kind of materials can recover their shape in a predefined way from temporary shape to desired permanent shape when exposed to an appropriate stimulus. In the development and extensive application of synthetic shape memory polymers on textile industrials, the thermal and hygrothermal effects of wool materials have attracted considerable attention. In this article the fundamental concept of the shape memory polymers and the fundamental aspects of the shape-memory effect were reviewed. The thermal and hygrothermal effects of wool materials were also summarized to discuss the shape memory behavior of wool materials. Besides the effects of synthetic shape memory polymers on the thermal and hygrothermal of the woven wool fabrics were introduced to show the shape memory behavior of treated wool further.