This paper deals with the characterization of the thermomechanical behavior of monolithic refractory castables in a wide temperature range, up to 1200°C. Different test types are considered: tensile tests, compression tests, bending tests and tests on more complex shapes and geometries. A particular attention is paid to the detailed characterization and interpretation of the non-linear behaviors of these materials. Monotonic, cyclic and creep tests are considered. In some cases, digital image correlation (DIC) methods can be coupled to mechanical tests to obtain strain fields. Such results are particularly interesting to observe and to understand damage processes. As damage is a major characteristic of the monolithic castable behaviors, links are established between the thermomechanical behavior and damage mechanisms. Two main scales are taken into account for damage characterization: the macroscopic and the microscopic ones. Main mechanisms that are considered deal with microcracking, macrocracking, debonding and cavitation. Two types of materials are considered: non-reinforced and fiber reinforced refractory castables.