Specific features of the structural phase transitions of the first order were investigated in nanosized crystals with Jahn-Teller ions. As an example the phase transitions of martensite type with changes in symmetry from a cubic to a tetragonal one have been considered. The Kanamori model was used to take into account the size of nanocrystallites and the distribution of cations over non-equivalent crystallographic sublattices in such systems. It was shown the temperature and the latent heat of the transition decrease significantly for the nanoscaled grains. A possibility of multi-phase state for nanocrystalline materials was considered.