Nanorods of a compound semiconductor, BiOCl, have been prepared from BiCl3 solutions containing a nonionic surfactant, t-octyl-(OCH2CH2)xOH, x=9, 10 (Triton X-100). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that the product was pure tetragonal phase bismoclite (BiOCl). The product was also characterized by the techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The as-obtained BiOCl nanorods possess mean diameters less than 40nm and lengths ranging in 160-400nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern showed the single-crystal nature of as-prepared BiOCl nanorods. The growth mechanism of BiOCl nanorods has also been proposed.