Particle Proton–Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most sensitive analytical methods which can be used in the study of ancient mural paintings - especially pigments. It requires small samples or tiny fragments of the paint layer. It is a non-destructive technique and provides data on elemental concentrations. Analysis can be performed in vacuum or in air. The major advantage of this technique is the ability to analyze simultaneously both elements and trace elements present in the sample. Another advantage is the short data acquisition time. This research studies red, yellow, blue and green pigments used in the tomb of Ramesses III (N.11 - 1198 BC), the tomb of Tohthmous III- (N.34 - 1504 BC), both located at the Valley of the Kings Luxor, and also, Medinet Habu temple of Ramesses II (1198 -1166 BC) located at the West Bank of Luxor. The study was performed by using light Optical Microscope (LOM) and Particle Proton–Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE).